Republic Of Rome Rulebook


REPUBLIC OF ROME is a compressed abstraction of more than 250 years of history simulating politics in the Roman Senate during the Republic. Players control factions composed of the leading Senatorial families and compete for state offices, military commands, economic concessions and new adherents. Eash player attempts to increase the strength of his faction to the point where it dominates the government. However, the Senate must also attend to the affairs of the state in a hostile world, necessitating a certain amount of cooperation in the prosecution of wars and the maintenance of public contentment. Failure to do so, especially at the outset when Rome is most vulnerable, may result in the collapse of the Republic. Therefore the players must defeat not only one another, but the game itself which constitutes an ever-present opponent scheming to defeat them all. Players are advised to keep the threat of the downfall of the Republic evermost in mind and stand ready to cooperate for the good of the state. Otherwise, the most likely winner will be the game, and all players will be put to the sword!


The game consists of the following equipment:

one 16" x 22" gamevboard
three decks of 64 cards each
three six-sided dice (one colored, two white)
three sheets of die-cut playing pieces
six Sequence of Play/Faction Treasury cards
one 24-page rulebook

The number of dice to be rolled in any given table is illustrated at the top of that table by a depiction of a die showing the number to be rolled.


Each Game Turn represents one year within a compressed, abstract framework wherein lackluster "years" are skipped to keep the action constant. Each turn is composed of seven Phases.

I. MORTALITY PHASE (5): The Banker randomly draws one Mortality Chit to determine any deaths by natural causes.

II. REVENUE PHASE (6): The Banker adjusts the Revenue markers on the State Treasury Track.

1. Each player collects Personal Revenues from the "Bank" due his individual Senators (including Personal Income of Governors) and places the appropriate gold money markers on their Senator cards. Each Governor of an undeveloped Province then makes a dr attempting to improve that Province. Any rebel Senators then pay maintenance for their forces.

2. The Banker collects state revenues and pays for current Wars, Land Bills, and maintenance of loyal forces out of the State Treasury, recording the new totals and advising all players of the state's finances. Personal Contributions are solicited and simultaneously accepted. Advance the Term markers of loyal Governors and move Province cards of returning Governors to the Forum.

3. Each player redistributes wealth among the loyal Senators of his Faction and/or his Faction Treasury.

III. FORUM PHASE (7): Remove all expired Event cards from the previous turn. Each player, starting with the HRAO, in clockwise succession takes his Initiative. Each Initiative consists of the following actions:

1. Make a DR. If the DR is a "7", roll a TDR on the Random Events Table and place the corresponding Even card in the Forum. Otherwise, draw a card from the Forum deck.

2. Make one Persuasion Attempt.

3. Attempt to attract a Knight or pressure Knights.

4. Change Faction Leader if desired, or sponsor Games.

In games with less than six players, after all players have finished their Initiative, the player controlling the HRAO declares his sole bid for the right to take the next Initiative. The other players likewise declare their sole bids in clockwise order. The first claimant to a particular bid wins ties. The winning bid must be paid out of a single Senator's Personal Treasury. That player then takes his Initiative. This process is repeated if necessary until six Initiatives have been taken during that turn. The Forum Phase then ends and all players adjust their vote markers.

The HRAO then rolls a die for each Concession/Senator in the Curia (even if destroyed/killed that turn). If he rolls a "5" or "6", that card is revived and placed face up in the Forum. He also rolls for each Leader in the Curia currently without a matching War card in the Forum and discards it on a die roll of "5" or "6".

IV. POPULATION PHASE (8): The Unrest Level is increased by one for each Drought, Pirate, or Unprosecuted War (10.72) currently in effect. The HRAO then makes a Population Table TDR.

V. SENATE PHASE (9): HRAO summons Senate.

1. Elect two Consuls (and a Pontifex Maximus in the Advanced Game); new Rome Consul becomes Presiding Magistrate.

2. Elect Censor from among prior Consuls; conduct any Prosecutions.

3. Elect vacant Governorships.

4. Conduct all other business, adjourn Senate, and retabulate vote markers.

VI. COMBAT PHASE (10): Resolve all battles.


1. Starting with the HRAO and proceeding clockwise around the table, players play, trade, or discard Intrigue cards. Any held Statesman or Concession to be activated during the coming turn, must be played now.

2. Each Governor and each victorious Commander announces (HRAO first and then clockwise around the table) whether he will return his command to the Senate or revolt.


4.1 GAMEBOARD: Place the gameboard so that each player has ample space offboard to display the cards that will constitute his Faction. Give each player a Faction Treasury/Sequence of Play card.

4.2 MARKERS: Place the 36 Mortality chits in an opaque cup suitable for a random draw. Place a Revenue marker on the "100" box of the State Treasury Track and the Unrest Level Marker on the "0" box of the Unrest Level Track next to the Population Table. Put four Legions in the "Active Box" and all remaining game pieces off to the side for later use.

4.3 BANKER: Elect one player to serve as an unrecompensed "Banker" throughout the game. He doles out money from game supplies as it is earned, makes change upon request, and maintains the proper currency levels on the State Treasury Track while keeping the State, Game, and his Faction's funds distinctly separate.

4.4 CARDS: Separate the cards into three decks according to the color of the illustration half of the card (white, gray, or pink). The decks can also be distinguished by the dividing line separating the card's illustration half from its descriptive half: white = double line, gray = dashed, and pink = solid. Keep the 15 all-gray/all-pink Province cards and the 18 all-gray/all-pink Event cards separate and off to the side for ready access. Separate the 20 white Senator cards and randomly deal three to each player. Return the remaining white Senator cards to the white deck and shuffle it. Place the 1st Punic War card in the Inactive Wars section of the Forum. Put the gray and pink decks aside. If playing the Extended Game Victory Conditions (12.6), the gray deck, followed by the pink deck, will replace the depleted white deck.

4.5 FACTION LEADERS: Each player places a Faction Leader marker containing the symbol of his Faction on one of his three Senators.

4.6 TEMPORARY ROME CONSUL: The Senator in play with the lowest ID# is Temporary Rome Consul until new Consuls can be elected during the first Senate Phase. Place the Rome Consul and Prior Consul markers on his card and add five to his Influence by placing the appropriate white number chit(s) over the printed Influence rating on his card.

4.7 INITIAL INTRIGUE PHASE: Each player, starting with the temporary Rome Consul and then proceeding clockwise around the table, draws cards from the top of the white deck until he has drawn three red cards. He keeps the identity of his red cards to himself, but must openly discard all black cards he drew face up one at a time as he draws them. After each player has obtained three red cards with which to start the game, the remaining cards plus all black discards are reshuffled. Each player may decide to play any Statesmen or Concessions he has now or hold them in his hand until a subsequent Revolution Phase. There should be only one card in the Forum: the First Punic War.

4.8 RESOLVING TIES: Ties of any nature not resolved by stated secondary considerations are always broken in favor of the highest roller in a random DR.


5.1 RESOLUTION: One Mortality Chit is drawn at random from the cup. The Senator whose numerical ID matches that of the chit has died of natural causes. If the named Senator is not active, there is no effect. If a "Draw 2" marker is drawn, it is immediately returned to the cup and two more markers are drawn. It is possible (although very unlikely) that a "Draw 2" marker could be redrawn several times in the same turn resulting in three or more deaths in a single year.

5.11 GRACCHI BROTHERS/LICINII: No Senators with the same numerical ID can be in play at the same time except for the Gracchi brothers (Statesmen 25A and 25B) and the Licinii (Statesmen 29A and 29B) in the later scenarios. Should the "25" or "29" death chit be drawn when both its respective Statesmen are in play, the Senator affected is determined by a random DR.

5.2 DEATH CONSEQUENCES: Regardless of the cause of death, all markers (except the Faction Leader marker) are removed from the afflicted Senator's card. unless the deceased was a Faction Leader or Statesman, his card is returned face down to the bottom of the Curia in the "Repopulating Rome" space, representing a rising family member of the deceased. A dead Faction Leader Family card always remains with his Faction unless he was killed as a caught Assassin (9.84) or in the resulting prosecution. A Statesman is permanently removed from play when he dies.

8.3 FACTION ELIMINATION: Factions are not eliminated unless they have lost their last Senator as a result of trying an Assassination (9.84). If a Faction has no Senators left, that player may draw the top Senator card in the Curia to use as his new Faction Leader. If there is none, he may sort through the deck until he finds one. The deck is then reshuffled.


6.1 PERSONAL REVENUE: Each Faction Leader collects three Talents and all other loyal Aligned Senators collect one apiece. This money, plus funds collected from Concessions, Governorships, or Knights, is dispensed by the Banker to each player. Although the money dispensed technically belongs to each Senator who earned it, game consequences are such that it makes no difference to which Senator(s) of a Faction the money is given at this point so the money need not be given out in the exact amounts earned by each Senator, but can be given as a lump sum to one. Personal Treasuries are open to inspection by other players.

6.11 KNIGHTS/CONCESSIONS: Each Senator collects from the Bank one Talent for each Knight on his card plus the revenue generated by any Concession he controls.

6.12 GOVERNORSHIP: Each Governor has the option to roll a die or dice (as indicated on his Province card after "Personal Income") to generate that number of Talents of Personal Revenue (above and beyond taxes paid the State) for his Province that turn. A Governor need not pay a negative Personal Income result, but the State must pay for negative amounts collected by both Personal and State Income rolls. A Governor need not collect Personal Revenue produced by his Province, but must make that decision before rolling to determine the amount. If he does collect Personal Income, flip the Term marker on his Province card as a reminder of his corrupt activities. A Governor who tries to collect Personal Revenue from his Province (regardless of result) is considered "corrupt" and subject to possible Prosecution or fines from the Calpurnian Law during the Senate Phase upon his return to Rome. A Province in revolt (14.52) produces no state tax revenue, but is plundered by the rebel Governor who uses that revenue for his own purposes.

EXAMPLE: The Governor of undeveloped Further Spain rolls a "4" for State Income resulting in a loss to Rome of five Talents (-4 -1 =-5). His Personal Income dr of "2" results in net income of -1 (2 -3 =-1) but he need not pay any negative totals out of his own funds. Total bill to the State Treasury is six Talents.

6.13 REBEL MAINTENANCE: Any Senator in revolt must pay two Talents for every Legion/Fleet in his force (other than those Veterans owing him personal allegiance) or return the excess forces to the State Active boxes.

6.14 PROVINCE IMPROVEMENT: After collecting or declining to collect his Provincial Personal Income, the Governor of each undeveloped (gray) Province must make a dr to see if that Province has been "improved" by Roman control. If the dr is ³ 6, the Province card is flipped to its developed (pink) side. The new values listed thereon remain in effect for the rest of the game unless that Province is Overrun by a Barbarian Raid (7.352) or allies with a War card (see 14.411) and is subsequently conquered again by Rome in which case it returns to its undeveloped side. There is a +1 drm to the Improvement dr if the Governor did not attempt to gain Personal income from the Province that turn. A developed Province generates more income and is less susceptible to Revolt. The current Governor of a Province when it is developed earns three Influence.

6.141 BITHYNIA-PONTUS: The Province of Bithynia is an exception to the normal rules for Province improvement. Bithynia can also be improved to the new Province of Bithynia-Pontus by a Victory in the 3rd Mithridatic War. If that War is won before Bithynia is created, the undeveloped Province of Bithynia never occurs.

6.2 STATE REVENUES: The Banker records all funds due the State and adjusts the "Revenue" markers on the State Treasury Track. The State receives 100 Talents Annual Revenue at the start of each Revenue Phase.

6.21 TAXES: If there are any active Provinces, each Governor rolls a die or dice (as indicated on that Province card after "State income") to determine the number of Talents in taxes paid to the State by his Province. In some cases, this can be a negative amount and results in the Treasury Track markers being reduced accordingly. The amount of taxes collected is recorded on the Treasury Track by the Banker. A Province in revolt or engaged in a Provincial War (14.4) produces no taxes for the State.

6.22 DEBITS & CONTRIBUTIONS: After adding the Annual Revenue and Provincial Taxes to the State Treasury, subtract 20 Talents for each active War/Revolt (even if Unprosecuted) and the appropriate amount for any Land Bills in effect. Deduct two Talents for maintenance of each existing Legion or Fleet not in rebellion. The Banker should advise all players whenever the State Treasury falls below 50 or 20 Talents of the danger of Bankruptcy (and immediate loss) to subsequent Natural Disaster/Evil Omens Event draws. Contributions may be made simultaneously as part of a conditional gift based on similar Contributions by other players. Any Senator (even those not in Rome) may contribute money to the State Treasury regardless of the level of the Treasury. In doing so, a Senator may gain one Influence for ten Talents, three Influence for 25 Talents, or seven Influence for 50 Talents. Excess Contributions do not accumulate credit for Influence gains in later turns. If unable to pay its obligations, the state is bankrupt and any declared rebel wins the game (12.32); otherwise, all players lose.

6.3 REDISTRIBUTION: Players may now give money from their Faction Treasury and the Personal Treasuries of their own Senators to any other Faction Treasury or loyal Senator-including those of other players. Such exchange between players may be in payment for "services rendered" in any private or public agreement between the players (7.37). The Redistribution Segment is the only time that currency can freely exchange hands in this manner. Even if a trade or purchase of an Intrigue card is arranged, and possession of the card changes hands, any payment of Talents must wait until this phase.

6.31 FACTION TREASURY: Money allocated to the Faction Treasury is placed on the Sequence of Play/Faction Treasury card in front of each player. This is the only money that may be used to intervene in another Faction's Persuasion attempt. Money from the Faction Treasury may also be used to maintain Legions in the event of a revolt by a Senator of that Faction. Only money in the Faction Treasury is safe from loss due to death.

6.32 NON-DISCLOSURE: The contents of Faction Treasuries are secret. Although others may view the pile of currency there, they are not entitled to an actual count of it.


7.1 PASSAGE OF TIME: Previous Event cards (except uncollected Bequests, unused Refugee, and an inactive Pretender) in the Forum are removed.

7.2 INITIATIVE: The HRAO player must take a Initiative DR. If he rolls a "7", he must make a TDR on the Random Events Table to determine which Event card he has drawn (7.35). Otherwise, he draws a card from the Forum deck. He may then make one Persuasion Attempt and one attempt to attract (or pressure; 7.61) a Knight. Then, he may either, appoint a different Senator of his Faction as his Faction Leader if he wishes or sponsor Games. A player need not have a Senator in Rome to take his regular Initiative.

7.21 INITIATIVE: Once the HRAO has completed his Initiative sequence, the other players in clockwise order do likewise until all players have completed the sequence. Then any additional Initiatives needed to bring the total number for that turn to six are auctioned off (see 3.III) to the highest bidder and performed one at a time. Only those Senators currently in Rome may bid for an extra Initiative and they must pay their bids from their bids from their Personal Treasury.

7.3 CARDS: There are two classes of cards. Cards with black text are Forum cards and must be played face up in the Forum when they are drawn. Cards with red text are Intrigue cards and belong to the player who draws them. An Intrigue card must be held secretly in a player's possession until he chooses to play it in accordance with any restrictions pertaining to that card. A player may never start a new turn with more than five unplayed Intrigue cards (11.1).

7.31 SENATORS: The number in the upper left is a Senator's Military rating representing his ability as a General/Admiral. The number in the upper right is the Oratory rating representing his political skills. The number in the lower left is his Loyalty rating measuring the degree of Allegiance to his current situation (see also 7.511). Some Statesmen have two Loyalty ratings; a positive number or a 0 expressed as "#/0". The 0 is applicable if that Statesman belongs to the same faction as a particular Statesman noted on his card. The number in the lower right is his Influence and serves as a fluctuating gauge of his prestige. This rating can be increased during the game by his public service or reduced by his misdeeds. A Senator's current Influence is noted by placement of the appropriate number markers in the lower right corner of his card. This number is always positive; a Senator can never have less than 0 Influence. The small number in the upper center of the card is the Senator ID Number which corresponds with a like-numbered Mortality Chit. if the ID is alpha-numeric, the Senator is a Statesman (7.312).

Senator cards also contain designated areas to record the Senator's Popularity, to note prior Consular experience whenever a Senator has been named Consul or Dictator, and to stack each Senator's personal Treasury (gold), or Knights (black) markers. If a Senator's Popularity is negative, it is recorded with a black number marker.

7.311 FAMILY: Senator cards represent leading families in the Senate and are referred to as Family cards. Family cards have black text and their ratings are expressed on the right half of the card. new Family cards are added to a Faction only through Persuasion Attempts (see 7.5). Having a particular Family card means a player has in his Faction the leading member of that family. Should that Senator die, his place is taken by the next leading member of that family who, if not a Faction Leader, may change Factions or remain unaligned. Family cards with an ID number in brackets "[]" include a prominent Statesman which may appear during play.

7.312 STATESMEN: Senator cards with an alpha-numeric ID and red text represent outstanding individual statesmen with special capabilities listed on the left side of their cards. Statesmen also have a date printed beneath their ID# approximating their lifespan (when known) or period of greatest prominence. Statesmen can enter play only at game start (4.7) or during the Revolution Phase prior to Revolt declaration. A player can add his Statesman card to his Faction if:

A.  No opponent controls the related Family card. If the player already controls the related Family card, the Statesman is placed on top of it and takes over any current possessions and Influence/Popularity ratings greater than his own. Any other printed ratings of the Statesman which are less than that of the Family card remain equal to the Statesman's printed rating. If the related Family card is currently unaligned in the Forum, the Statesman is placed over it and both cards are moved to that player's Faction. When the Statesman dies, the Family card is returned to the Curia (or remains in its Faction if the deceased had been a Faction leader) minus its possessions and temporary ratings.
B.  The Family card with the same ID# is not currently in play. If the matching Family card subsequently appears, it is placed beneath the Statesman until his death. It will then be returned to play as per A above.

Most Statesmen may not enter play while a related Statesman (with the same numerical ID) is in play (see 5.11).

7.32 CONCESSIONS: Concession cards represent economic considerations such as collecting taxes or distributing grain. A Concession is owned by the player who draws it from the deck. He may assign it to one of his Senators at game start or during a Revolution Phase (11.1) by placing it partially beneath that Senator's card. That Senator is then entitled to collect during the Revenue Phase the number of Talents listed on that Concession. [EXCEPTIONS: In the case of the Armaments/Shipbuilding concessions, the controlling Senator collects his profit immediately when new Legions/Fleets are formed. The Land Commission Concession produces income only when a Land Bill is in effect.] A Senator loses a Concession due to his death/exile, a successful Minor Prosecution (9.411), or due to certain Wars or Natural Disasters. Whenever a Senator dies or is convicted, his Concessions are returned to the Forum where they can be awarded to another Senator by Senate vote. However, if the Concession itself was destroyed by a War or Natural Disaster, it is returned to the Curia where an end-of-Forum Phase dr of "5" or "6" is necessary to move it to the Forum for reassignment.

7.33 WARS: When a War card with an Armaments symbol is drawn, that particular war or revolt has broken out. It usually remains in effect until the Senate defeats it. The numbers directly beneath the date represent its value in combat. The first number is the enemy's Land Strength which represents the value of his Army. The second number is the Fleet Support Number which indicates the number of Roman Fleets, if any, required to support the war; it never changes-regardless of the effects of Matching Wars. Fleets usually do not affect odds computation but must be present in at least the numbers specified for a War to be fought. The third number present on some War cards represents enemy Fleet Strength which must be defeated in a naval battle before conducting the land battle. Enemy Land and Fleet Strength can double, triple, or even quadruple in a Matching War (7.332). The alpha-numeric numbers in the bottom corners of the card determine automatic Disasters and Standoffs and are explained in the Combat section (10.21, 10.31).

7.331 INACTIVE WARS: All War cards without an Armaments symbol are Inactive Wars. Although they remain in the Forum when drawn, they are ignored until the Senate sends an Army to attack them or they are activated by the Social War, their Leader, a matching War of the same type (with an identical illustration), or a Leader given Refuge. Place them in the "Inactive War" slots of the Forum until activated. Once activated, their status is changed by movement of the card to an Active War Forum slot. Each card lists how many "matching" wars will activate it by reminding players of the possibility of doubled, tripled, or quadrupled strength (see 7.332).

7.332 MATCHING WARS: Whenever two Wars of the same type (those with matching illustrations) are in the Forum (e.g., two Punic Wars or two Pirates) the Strength Numbers of each are doubled as long as the two remain in play. If a third matching War is drawn, the Strength Numbers of all three are tripled. If all four Macedonian War cards are in play at the same time, their strength is quadrupled. However, each War card is fought individually-not added to its related Wars. In these situations the Strength Numbers of the remaining related Wars are reduced again to tripled, doubled, or normal strength as their matching Wars are individually vanquished. Matching Wars are each considered a separate War contributing the effect of one separate War of the four required to defeat Rome. Rome may not attack the latter of any currently active Matching Wars unless she first prosecutes all earlier currently active and related Matching Wars.

EXAMPLE: Assume the 1st and 2nd Punic Wars are in the Forum. Rome need not defeat the 1st Punic War in order to attack the second, but she must attack it in the same turn she attacks the 2nd Punic War.

7.3321 TIME DELAY: Whenever a War or Revolt card is drawn from the deck that would match a face-up War or Revolt card already located in the Forum, the drawn card is placed face-down in an Inactive War slot for the remainder of the current turn. If the face-up card is currently located in an Inactive War slot, it is immediately moved to an Active War slot; otherwise, face-up cards are not affected in any way. At the beginning of each new turn, before any other action is taken, all cards in Inactive War slots are turned face-up, and one card for each War or Revolt is moved to an Active War slot on the Forum. Wars should be selected for activation in chronological order (e.g. 1st Macedonian before 2nd Macedonian) whenever possible. An Inactive War and its Leader are instantly matched and activated; there is no delay. If a Leader is drawn that matches an Active War, the Leader is immediately placed on the Active War card - but no additional War cards are activated.

EXAMPLE: First Punic War begins the game face-up in an Inactive War slot. Second Punic War is drawn; it is placed face-down in an Inactive War slot, and the First Punic War is moved to an Active War slot. Third Punic War is drawn in the same turn; it is placed face-down in an Inactive War slot. The Hannibal Leader card is then drawn; it is immediately placed with the active First Punic War. At the start of Turn 2, Second Punic War is moved to an Active War slot, but Third Punic War remains Inactive until the start of Turn 3. If the Hamilcar Leader card is drawn during either turn, it would be placed with an active Punic War card. Third Punic War would remain Inactive.

7.333 PIRATES: Pirates have the impact of a Drought (see 7.353). As long as Pirates are present (even if inactive), Drought conditions continue and the Unrest Level is increased by one at the start of each Population Phase. If both Pirates cards are present, the Unrest Level is increased by two each Population Phase.

7.334 CONSEQUENCES: A War need not be fought immediately, but for each active War card in the Forum during the Revenue Phase, the state loses 20 Talents. If, at the end of any Combat Phase, there are four active Wars, the Republic collapses and all players lose. Inactive Wars do not count against the four-war limit or the revenue drain until activated. Any active War card in the Forum not containing a Legion marker at the end of the Combat Phase is moved to one of the three "Unprosecuted War" slots at the bottom of the Forum-until it ends a combat Phase with a Legion upon it. The Unrest Level increases by one for each Unprosecuted War during each Population Phase.

7.335 REVOLTS: A Revolt is the equal of a War for all purposes except that no Spoils of War are created by a defeated Revolt. Many Revolt cards are conditional; i.e., they are treated as Revolts if a named Province currently exists at the time of being drawn, but are treated as Wars of Events if it does not. Whenever the last War in a numbered series of Matching Wars is defeated, any previous War in that series is thereafter treated as a Revolt.

EXAMPLE: If the 3rd Punic War is defeated, the 1st and 2nd Punic Wars are considered Revolts.

7.34 LEADERS: Leader cards represent the appearance of a particularly able enemy commander. Their presence makes a war more difficult to prosecute. If, while a war is in effect, a matching Leader card is drawn (e.g., Hannibal is drawn while Punic Wars are in effect), the Land and Fleet Strength Number(s) of the current War(s) is increased by his value (after any relevant doubling or tripling for Matching Wars). The Leader card is not discarded until all of its Matching War(s) are defeated. If a Leader is drawn when none of its Matching Wars are currently in play, it is left on display in the Curia indicating that individual has reached prominence in his native land. At the end of each Forum Phase, an Aging dr must be made for each Leader in the Forum without a Matching War in play. If the dr is a "5" or "6", that Leader dies and is discarded. The numbers in the bottom corners of the Leader card determine automatic Roman Disasters/Standoffs (10.21/10.31) directly attributable to the skill of the Leader and are added to those in effect for the War itself.

7.341 CLEOPATRA: Cleopatra is a special Leader card which is holdable in a player's hand as an Intrigue card. The holder of Cleopatra may play it only prior to Combat resolution of the Alexandrine War. If played as an Ally, the Commander of the Roman force sent against the Alexandrine War increases his Military Rating against that War by 3 and gains 50 Talents, but loses five Popularity. If played as an Enemy, it is placed in the Forum and increases the Alexandrine War strength in the normal manner.

7.35 EVENTS: Before taking his Initiative, each player must make a DR to see if he triggers a Random Event. If he rolls a "7", he must make a TDR on the Random Events Table and place the gray Event card corresponding to the TDR in play. If that Event card is already in play, it is flipped to its pink side. Events (with the exception of uncollected Bequests (7.351), unused Refuge, and an inactive Pretender) remain in effect only until the Forum Phase of the following Game Turn when they are removed and become eligible for reappearance. Except for Epidemics, Evil Omens, Droughts, manpower Shortages, Storms at Sea, and Mob Violence, any result matching that of a pink event already in play is treated as no further effect but nonetheless prevents the drawing of another Forum/Event card by that player.

7.351 BEQUESTS: Bequests and the Catiline Conspiracy are the only Event cards which are drawn normally. The State Treasury collects the amount of the Bequest if a Field Consul and at least three Legions and three Fleets are dispatched to bring them to Rome. In so doing, they create the Province listed on that card. If, however, the Consul sent out declares himself in revolt, he controls the money. Otherwise, he returns to Rome in the Revolution Phase, his Legions are returned to the Active Box, and the money is awarded to the state in the immediately following Revenue Phase. Bequest cards remain in play in the Forum until collected. The Ptolemy-Apion Bequest requires no such action, and the Province of Crete-Cyrene is established as soon as the card is drawn.

7.352 BARBARIAN RAIDS: Barbarian incursions along the frontier threaten the outlying Provinces. At the START of the next Revenue Phase, the Governor of each underscored Province with a solid black border silhouette must make a Raid DR ³ 15 after adding the existing Military Force of the Province to prevent an Overrun. The Province's Military Force vs Raids is its printed Strength plus two for each Garrison Legion, plus 1 for each Provincial Army, plus the Military Rating of the Governor (regardless of his Province's forces). An Overrun results in the loss of all Revenue from that Province during that turn plus force losses equal to the colored dr of the Raid DR (up to the maximum of forces present in the Province). In addition, an Overrun Developed Province reverts to its gray Undeveloped state. No Development dr can be made that run. The Governor is killed only as a result of a Mortality chit drawn due to force loss (10.8) caused by an Overrun. However, in this case, the number of Mortality chits drawn are not dependent on actual units lost, but rather is equal to the colored dr of the Raid DR.

7.353 DROUGHT: Drought increases the Unrest Level by one. During the next Revenue Phase, income on grain concessions may be doubled, but any Senator who collects doubled income loses two Popularity. If Pirates (and/or certain Wars which also create "man-made" Drought conditions) are also in play at the same time as a Drought, grain concession income and the Popularity penalties for collecting it are increased by one multiple in each instance. Manmade droughts which are not Events, but part of an ongoing War are not necessarily one-turn conditions-they are continuous until the Pirates/War are defeated. Should a third Drought occur during the same turn, place a "3" marker on the pink Drought card to symbolize its increased severity.

A player does not have to collect increased revenue for his Grain concession; he may always opt to collect less to reduce the impact on his Popularity correspondingly.

EXAMPLE: A Drought and a Pirate card are in the Forum. The Unrest Level will increase by two at the start of the Population Phase. Any Grain concession income is tripled. A Senator taking this tripled income loses three Popularity. If the Sicilian Slave Revolt is also drawn, the Unrest Level will increase by three instead of two, and potential Grain Concession income will be quadrupled at the cost of -4 Popularity. If both Pirates, a Drought, and the Sicilian Slave Revolt are drawn, the Unrest Level will increase by four and the potential Grain Concession income will be quintupled at the cost of -5 Popularity.

7.354 EPIDEMIC: A new Mortality Check (5.1) is made by drawing six Mortality Chits. Only those Senators currently in Rome can be affected. If further Epidemics are rolled in the same Forum Phase, they reflect a foreign plague which kills only the first Governor, Proconsul, Exile, Captive or rebel drawn for each Epidemic who is currently away from Rome.

7.355 EVIL OMENS: Evil portents suggest the Gods are not amused, and Rome suffers a year of bad luck. The State Treasury must immediately pay 20 Talents for sacrifices and Temple repair, and until the next Forum Phase one must be subtracted from EVERY die and dice roll except the Initiative DR (7.2) [Exception: One must be ADDED to Persuasion Attempts (7.51)]. Further Evil Omens in the same turn do not increase the Talent payment, but do increase the adverse dice modifiers.

7.356 MANPOWER SHORTAGE: The cost of raising new Legions and Fleets during this Game Turn is doubled to 20 Talents each. If an additional Manpower Shortage is in effect due to the Population Table or a previous Manpower Shortage Event in the same turn, the cost is increased by 10 Talents for each instance. If a third Manpower Shortage occurs in the same turn, place a "3" marker on the card and the cost increases to 40 Talents each.

7.357 NATURAL DISASTER: The State Treasury must immediately pay 50 Talents for relief. A dr must be made and the indicated Concession must be returned to the Curia face down. If the rolled Concession is already destroyed or inactive there is no additional effect. Only one Natural Disaster requiring a 50 Talent payment may occur per turn, but if a second Natural Disaster event is rolled, a second Concession must be destroyed by making another dr on the Natural Disaster card..

7.358 STORM AT SEA: Roman Fleets equal in number to a DR are eliminated (up to a maximum of those currently in play). There is no effect on Legions although some may have to be withdrawn to Italy for lack of support if sufficient additional Fleets cannot be raised during the Senate Phase. A storm has no effect on the construction of new Fleets.

7.359 INTERNAL DISORDER: Each undeveloped (gray) Province has no Revenue in the next Revenue Phase and may not attempt an Improvement dr (6.14). The Governor of each undeveloped Province must make a DR > 4 at the start of the Revenue Phase (following resolution of any Barbarian Raids) to prevent a Revolt. The Governor receives a +1 DRM for each Garrison Legion he has. A successful Revolt kills the Governor and his Garrison and moves the Province card to the Forum as an active War along with any Provincial forces it may already have (14.411).

7.36 INTRIGUE CARDS: Red cards (Statesmen, Concessions, and Intrigue) may be held secretly in a player's possession for play at his convenience. A player may show his red cards to whomever he chooses in hopes of encouraging an agreement or favorable action.

7.361 TRIBUNES: Tribunes may be used to initiate or veto proposals (see 9.7).

7.362 STATESMEN: Red Senator cards represent Statesmen of outstanding ability with special capabilities listed on their card. An unplayed Statesman is not subject to Mortality Chit draws.

7.363 LAWS: Law cards represent changes in the rules governing the Republic and play of the game. Once played, the rules affected apply to all subsequent play-not just the player of the card. Display played Law cards in the Law box rather than mixing them with the Discards. Law cards may be played anytime during the Senate Phase-even before elections. A player need not have a Senator present in Rome to play a Law card.

7.37 TRADE: Players may trade and/or give away only their held (i.e., not yet played) red cards-usually in exchange for certain favors. Players may show their cards, agree to the terms of trade, and even exchange cards at other times, but the traded cards cannot be played prior to the next Revolution Phase. If cards change hands outside the Revolution Phase, they must be placed beneath the board edge until the Revolution Phase as a reminder of their unplayable status. Any Talent payment as part of these trades must wait until the next Revenue Phase-even if the card is transferred immediately. Due to the volatile emotions such trades can create when the parties disagree over whether the terms of the trade have been honored, the following rules apply.

7.371 SECRET AGREEMENT: Players who discuss their deals in private have no recourse when a trade partner fails to honor the terms of any agreement. Such a betrayal is considered a legitimate game tactic and not a form of "cheating". Caveat Emptor.

7.372 OPEN TRADES: Players who discuss their bargain for all to hear can rely on the truthful testimony of the other players to enforce the provisions of any trade. If the majority agrees that the terms of the agreement were not fulfilled, the wronged party can rescind those aspects of the trade that are still being held (and are therefore retrievable). Virtually anything that does not circumvent the rules can be agreed to in such a deal, offers to concede a particular Consulship to a co-Consul are never enforceable, nor is any deal involving an Assassination attempt, or guaranteed Passage of any vote.

EXAMPLE: During the Senate Phase, X agrees in open discussion to give Y five Talents, a Tribune card, and a Concession in exchange for Y's promise that his Rome Consul will propose Julius for Censor and vote for his election. Y does as promised. However, the Rome Consul calls upon X to vote first for his own election whereas X wants to vote last to assure passage. The measure is defeated when player Z spends money to buy votes to defeat it. X protests that the bargain was not kept, but the other players agree with Y that nothing was said about a specific voting order and the trade stands. Y keeps the cards and is entitled to five Talents from X during the next Revenue Phase. X gets nothing except heartburn.

7.4 GAMES: Sponsoring Games allows a Senator to increase his Popularity while lowering the Unrest Level of the populace. The player pays the required cost of the type of Games he wishes to sponsor as listed on the Games Table from the Senator's Personal Treasury and then adjusts his Popularity by placing an appropriately numbered marker on his card in the Popularity space.

7.5 PERSUASION ATTEMPTS: A Senator in Rome may attempt to persuade an unaligned Senator in the Forum or an already Aligned Senator also in Rome to join his own Faction.

7.51 RESOLUTION: The Senator making the Persuasion Attempt adds his Oratory and Influence and subtracts from this sum the target Senator's Loyalty rating. The resulting Base Number, which may be modified in the ways outlined below, is then compared to a DR. If the DR is £ the Base Number, the Persuasion Attempt succeeds and the target Senator joins the Faction of the Senator making the Persuasion Attempt. If the original DR is ³ 10 or if the modified DR is > the Base Number the Persuasion Attempt fails and the target Senator remains either uncommitted or aligned to his current Faction as the case may be.

7.511 LOYALTY: If the target Senator is already Aligned, seven is added to his Loyalty rating. The number of Talents in the Personal Treasury of the target Senator, whether Aligned or not, is added to his Loyalty rating. If two Statesmen who opposed each other historically belong to the same Faction the Loyalty rating of both is reduced to "0" until one leaves the Faction. A player may voluntarily abandon such a Statesman by placing his card in the Forum provided he does not do so during an announced Persuasion Attempt.

7.512 BRIBES: The Senator making the Persuasion Attempt may spend money from his Personal Treasury to aid the Persuasion Attempt. Each Talent spent adds one to the Base Number. This money is paid into the Personal Treasury of the target Senator at the end of the attempt, regardless of the outcome.

7.513 COUNTER-BRIBES: All players may interfere in a Persuasion Attempt made against a Senator by spending money from their Faction Treasuries to aid or resist the Persuasion Attempt. Each Talent thus spent subtracts one from the Base Number. This money is paid into the Personal Treasury of the target Senator at the end of the attempt, regardless of the outcome. If an Unopposed Persuasion Attempt is called for, this type of interference is not allowed and the target Senator must defend strictly with his Loyalty rating and Personal Treasury.

7.514 BIDDING: The Senator making the Persuasion Attempt announces his target and the initial Base Number, which may already reflect money irrevocably spent from his Personal Treasury. Play then moves clockwise around the table, and each player in turn announces the Talents, if any, he is irrevocably spending from his Faction Treasury to resist the Persuasion Attempt. The player making the Persuasion Attempt may then either make a DR at the present Base Number or irrevocably spend more Talents, with bidding moving around the table again. This cycle of bidding continues until all players stop spending money or the Persuader accepts the current Base Number. Money thus spent should be initially placed on the table in front of a player's Faction (the Banker making change as necessary) and transferred to the target Senator's card only after the Persuasion Attempt is resolved.

EXAMPLE: Fabius wishes to make a persuasion Attempt against Claudius, who is an uncommitted Senator in the Forum. Fabius adds his Oratory and Influence ratings and gets a sum of seven, from which he subtracts Claudius' Loyalty rating of "7" to produce a Base Number of "0". Fabius spends nine Talents from his Personal Treasury to bring the Base Number up to "9". Play then moves around the table, and the other players spend a total of eight Talents from their collective Faction Treasuries to lower the Base Number to "1". Fabius responds by spending the seven Talents remaining in his Personal Treasury to raise the Base Number to "8". Play revolves around the table again, but this time the other players are unwilling or unable to spend any more money so the final Base Number is "8". Fabius rolls a "9" which is not £ "8", so the Persuasion Attempt fails and Claudius remains uncommitted. All the money spent on the Persuasion Attempt it placed in Claudius' Personal Treasury, making him both more attractive and harder to get, since the 24 Talents now in his Personal Treasury are automatically added to his Loyalty rating in any future Persuasion Attempts.

7.6 KNIGHTS: A player may attempt to attract one Knight per Initiative to one of his Aligned Senators in Rome by paying zero to six Talents from that Senator's Personal Treasury and rolling a die. If the sum of the die roll and the number of Talents paid is ³ 6, a Knight is attracted and that Senator places a Knight marker on his card indicating the total number of Knights he controls. There is no limit to the number of Knights that may eventually be controlled by a Senator. For each Knight a Senator attracts he gains an extra vote in the Senate and an extra Talent of income during the Revenue Phase (unless he is in Revolt).

7.61 PRESSURING KNIGHTS: During his Initiative a player, instead of rolling to attract a Knight, may opt to pressure those he has for contributions and in so doing loses their support. He announces how many of his Knights he will pressure, returns them to the Bank, and rolls a die for each to determine the amount of Talents gained. This money must be added to the controlling Senator's Personal Treasury.

7.7 FACTION LEADER: Faction Leaders are immune to Persuasion Attempts.


8.1 UNREST: The Unrest Level represents the degree of dissatisfaction of the populace with the government. The Unrest Level starts at "0". At the start of each Population Phase it is increased by one for each Pirate (whether active or not), Drought, or Unprosecuted War present in the Forum. If a Pirate War is active and Unprosecuted it would add two to the Unrest Level. The Unrest Level is also increased by one whenever Rome suffers a Disaster in battle (even a naval battle) and by two whenever Rome suffers a Defeat. It is lowered immediately by Victory in War (including naval battles), sponsoring games, or passing Land Bills. There is no limit to how high the Unrest Level can go, but it can never go lower than 0. To show an Unrest Level higher than 9, add a 10 Talent piece next to the Unrest Level marker.

EXAMPLE: +20 would be shown by a 20 Talent piece next to the Unrest Level marker on the "0" space.

8.2 STATE OF THE REPUBLIC: The HRAO gives a State of the Republic speech by making a TDR, subtracting the Unrest Level, and adding his Popularity. The resultant sum is found on the Population Table to determine the result. The numbers on the Population Table indicate the amount the Unrest Level is to be immediately increased or decreased. A result of "NR" (No Recruitment) prohibits the formation of new Legions/Fleets this Game Turn. "MS" (Manpower Shortage) has the same effect as the Event card (7.356) and is cumulative with any currently in the Forum. "Mob" results in an assault on the Senate by an outraged mob which is resolved by drawing six Mortality Chits to check among those currently in Rome to determine the Senators killed. "People Revolt" results in an overthrow of the Senatorial government and defeat for all players if no Civil War exists. If one player is currently in revolt, he wins (barring loss due to four Wars; 12.32). "Manpower Shortage" or "No Recruiting" results should be recorded with the appropriate marker on the Population Table display until the next Population Phase.


9.1 HIGHEST RANKING AVAILABLE OFFICIAL (HRAO): The HRAO is the highest ranking official in Rome. The order of precedence of officials is listed on their office marker and is as follows: 1. Dictator, 2. Rome Consul, 3. Field Consul, 4. Censor, 5. Master of Horse, 6. Pontifex Maximus. If none of these officials is available due to death or absence from Rome, the Senator with the most Influence opens the meeting (using Oratory ratings to break ties). Al Senators in Rome (i.e., everyone except Governors, Proconsuls (10.7), Exiles, Captives and rebel Senators) must attend the Senate meeting.

9.11 PRESIDING MAGISTRATE: The Senator who convened the Senate is the Presiding Magistrate until the election of a new Rome Consul or Dictator. The Presiding Magistrate has compete control over the procedures of the Senate and with the exception of Prosecutions (see 9.41) conducts all business. He may recognize Senators in any order he wishes and may call for the votes of each Faction in any order. He alone makes nominations and proposals without the use of a Tribune card, and he may break off discussion on any proposal by calling for an immediate vote. Any player who ignores his demand for an immediate vote is considered to have abstained and loses his right to vote on that proposal. After all elections and Prosecutions, he may close the meeting at any time there is no unresolved proposal on the floor by stating "the Senate is adjourned".

9.2 ELECTIONS: The first act of any Presiding Magistrate must be to conduct elections for new Consuls from among the ranks of Aligned Senators. There are no minimum qualifications for Consul. However, a Consul may not succeed himself in consecutive turns. A Senator may not hold two offices simultaneously, but the current Censor may be elected Consul with the understanding that he will not continue to serve as Censor.

9.21 NOMINATIONS: Only the Presiding Magistrate may nominate candidates without using a Tribune, although he may accept suggestions from other players. He must nominate candidates in pairs. Any pair of candidates that is defeated may not be nominated again that turn as the same pair, but the individuals making up the defeated pair may be nominated again as part of a new pair. Candidates are elected or defeated as a pair; one cannot be elected while the other is defeated in the same vote.

9.22 TRIBUNES: Other Senators may force proposals to a vote only by using a Tribune. This may be done any time there is no proposal already on the floor, or it can be played during a current proposal with or without specifying intent so as to establish that player's right to make the next proposal. A Tribune can also be played immediately after the Presiding Magistrate adjourns the meeting to force its continuation to consider the Tribune's Proposal. Some Statesmen have the capability of playing an inherent Tribune each turn without actually playing a card.

9.23 AUTOMATIC ELECTION: Nominations continue until two Consuls are elected or until only one possible pair of candidates remains, in which case this final pair is elected.

9.24 ELIGIBILITY: To be nominated, a Senator must be in Rome and not hold any office (except Censor). This prevents outgoing Consuls from nominating themselves as incoming Consuls. A Senator may not decline a nomination although he may vote against himself.

9.25 ROME/FIELD CONSUL: The newly elected Consuls decide amongst them who will be Rome Consul. If they cannot agree, each makes a DR with the high roller gaining choice of office. Place the appropriate Consul markers on their respective cards and immediately increase their Influence by five. This Influence gain (like most Influence gains for taking office) is not lost when the Senator ceases to be Consul but is his to keep until lost by some form of misdeed. The new Rome Consul becomes Presiding Magistrate and takes over conduct of the meeting. The prior Consuls place a "Consular Experience" marker in the "Prior Consul" box of their card.

9.3 VOTING: After announcing the proposal, the Presiding Magistrate chooses a Faction to vote first. That Faction must vote, abstain, or use a Tribune to cancel the vote. After that Faction votes or abstains, the Presiding Magistrate selects another Faction to vote and the process is repeated until all Factions have had an opportunity to vote or the proposal is vetoed. The voting procedure of the Senate is the same for all business requiring a vote except that abstaining is not allowed during the passage/repeal of a Land Bill. Any player refusing to vote on a Land Bill when prompted is considered to have voted against it or for its repeal.

9.31 VOTES: Each Senator in Rome controls votes equal to his Oratory plus the number of Knights he controls. However, he may temporarily increase his votes for any particular proposal by buying them. For each Talent he pays out of his Personal Treasury (back to the Bank) he receives one extra vote for that round of voting. Players should keep a running tally of the total current votes (less bribes and Senators away from Rome) of each Faction displayed with the number markers in their Faction Treasury.

9.32 BLOCK VOTES: All the Senators in a Faction need not vote alike, though they usually will. Once a Senator (or entire Faction) declares his vote he may not change it, nor play a Tribune to cancel the vote.

9.33 PASSAGE: A simple majority (> 50%) of votes cast is required to pass any measure.

9.34 LOSS OF INFLUENCE: Whenever the Presiding Magistrate makes a nomination or major proposal which is defeated by unanimous vote of all Senators in Rome controlled by the other players, he loses one Influence (down to a minimum of 0) unless he steps down as Presiding Magistrate and hands conduct of the meeting over to the next HRAO.

9.4 CENSOR: Immediately after election of the new consuls, the Presiding Magistrate conducts elections for Censor. Candidates must be prior Consuls. The Censor may succeed himself. If only one eligible Candidate of Consular experience is available (as usually happens on the first turn), he is elected automatically. If there are no Senators of Consular experience present in the Senate and free of other offices, the election for Censor is temporarily thrown open to all Senators in Rome.

Each time a Censor is elected, the Censor marker is placed on that Senator's card and his Influence increases by five. The Presiding Magistrate now turns the conduct of the meeting over to the Censor temporarily to conduct any Prosecutions.

9.41 PROSECUTIONS: The Censor either declares no Prosecutions and returns conduct of the meeting to the Presiding Magistrate or announces a Prosecution. He may conduct up to two Minor or one Major Prosecution each turn in addition to any special Prosecutions of Assassins. During Prosecutions, the Censor is the Presiding Magistrate and conducts all voting. If the majority of votes are against conviction, the accused goes free and may not be prosecuted again this Game Turn for the same office, Concession, or Assassination attempt. During a Prosecution, the accused receives additional votes equal to his Influence.

9.411 MINOR PROSECUTIONS: The accused must have held an office during the previous Game Turn or collected income from a Concession. If convicted, the accused loses five Popularity (which can become negative) and five Influence (to a minimum of 0) as well as any Prior Consul marker, and must return all of his Concessions to the Forum.

9.412 PROSECUTOR: The Censor must appoint another consenting Senator to be Prosecutor for each Prosecution. If successful in his Prosecution (either by conviction or exile), the Prosecutor gains any Prior Consul marker of the defendant plus half (fractions rounded up) of any Influence lost by the defendant due to the Prosecution.

9.42 MAJOR PROSECUTIONS: The accused must have held an office other than a Governorship during the previous Game Turn. If the majority of votes are for conviction, the accused is executed unless he has already gone into exile.

9.421 EXILE: Any Statesmen undergoing a Major Prosecution may, during his Faction's turn to vote, go into voluntary exile instead of voting. He may make a Popular Appeal before deciding to vote or flee. Once he votes, however, the option to go into exile is lost. A Statesman in exile loses all income except that presently in his Personal Treasury which is frozen until recalled. He may not receive or give money from his Personal Treasury. He may retain any Knights and Legion Allegiance markers pending his recall but may not vote nor receive income while in exile. He loses all Prior Consul markers, Concessions, Priesthoods, positive Popularity, and Influence except that printed on his card.

9.422 LIFE IN EXILE: A Statesman in exile is marked with an Exile marker in his Prior Consul space which signifies his absence from Rome. He has no effect until recalled except to fulfill death requirements of a Mortality Chit draw or Foreign Epidemic. The Family card of a Statesman in exile is treaded as if the Statesman had died (5.2) except that a Mortality Chit draw during the Mortality Phase must be diced for to determine whether it effects the Statesman in exile or the Family card if the Family card remains in play.

9.423 RECALL FROM EXILE: A Statesman may return from exile only by vote of the Senate. If recalled, he returns to the Forum unless his Family card is currently aligned with a Faction in which case he replaces it normally (7.312A) or in the case of the Licinii/Grachii joins the Faction of his related Statesman (5.11). However, the Faction which cast the most votes for his recall may make one immediate Unopposed Persuasion Attempt and control him by rolling £ his Loyalty rating. If successful, he and his Family card are controlled by that Faction.

9.43 OFFENSE: The offices that render a Senator liable to prosecution are Dictator, Master of Horse, Consul, Proconsul, Censor, and Pontifex Maximus. A Governor may be prosecuted only upon the turn of his return to Rome and only if he has taken personal income from his Province at any time during his term.

9.44 POPULAR APPEAL: A Senator accused in a Prosecution may, when his Faction is called upon to vote, appeal to the people by making a DR, adding the result to his Popularity, and finding the sum on the Popular Appeal Table. The result is the amount of additional votes (or less votes in the case of a negative number) the accused has for the vote on his Prosecution. "Accused Killed" means the populace is so disgusted by the self-serving rhetoric of the accused that they kill him themselves. Conversely, a result of "Accused Freed" ends the Prosecution with an acquittal and a drawing of one Mortality chit for each number by which the modified DR exceeds 11 to see if either the Censor and/or the Prosecutor (the only two vulnerable to the chit draw) is killed by a mob enraged over this obvious frame-up. A Senator who makes a Popular Appeal and is not killed as a result may still go into exile or play a Tribune to veto the Prosecution after discovering the result of his appeal.

9.45 TRIBUNE: A Senator accused in any Prosecution (or one of his friends) may also play a Tribune during his Faction's vote and cancel the Prosecution. The cancelled Prosecution still counts towards the Censor's total allowed Prosecutions for that Game Turn.

9.46 END OF PROSECUTIONS: Upon completion of his Prosecutions, the Censor turns the meeting back to the HRAO.

9.5 REPOPULATING ROME: Whenever the number of Aligned Senators currently in Rome falls below eight during a Senate Phase due to death or absence, the top Senator card in the Curia is promoted to active status in the Faction of the player with the fewest Active Senators. Ties are resolved in favor of the player with the least total Influence currently in Rome. Such promotions continue until the number of active Senators in Rome reaches eight or the Curia is empty. If the Curia has no Senators, those in the Forum can be substituted. The choice of which of multiple Senators are currently to take is up to the receive player. If no further Senators are currently available in either the Curia or the Forum, no such promotion occurs.

9.6 OTHER BUSINESS: The Presiding Magistrate may now conduct other business by proposing whatever motions he wishes. Other Senators may place motions on the floor only by playing a Tribune, although the Presiding Magistrate may sponsor their suggestions if he wishes. The voting is always conducted by the Presiding Magistrate, regardless of who makes the Proposal. Except for the multiple election of Consuls or Governors, and the simultaneous awarding of Concessions, each proposal may address only one matter at a time. For example, a proposal could not group a Land Bill with a Concession vote to increase the chances of passage. The Presiding Magistrate may close the meeting whenever he chooses, as long as there is no unresolved motion on the floor. He simply states the "Senate is adjourned" and thereby ends the opportunity for Assassinations.

9.61 CONCESSIONS: Attempts to assign Concessions present in the Forum may be made by proposing a specific Concession (or group of Concessions) be assigned to one (or more) specific Senator(s) present at the meeting. Group proposals may be made assigning different Concessions to different Senators to increase voting support. If a proposal to assign a concession fails (whether singly or as part of a group), that Concession card(s) is flipped over to its reverse side and may not be proposed again during that Game Turn. There is no limit to the number of Concessions a Senator may control. The Land Commission Concession may only be assigned if a Land Bill is in effect; once assigned it must be returned to the Forum if there are no Land Bills in effect at the end of a Senate Phase.

9.611 DESTROYED CONCESSIONS: Concessions currently in play are destroyed only under the following circumstances.

A.  During the Senate Phase of each turn of the Gladiator Slave Revolt and Second Punic War, a dr is made to determine which area of Italy is being laid waste and consequently which Tax Farmer Concession has been destroyed. If Spartacus or Hannibal is also present, a second dr is made each turn to determine further possible Tax Farmer losses.
B.  Grain Concessions are destroyed when the Sicilian or Alexandrian Revolt/War occurs.
C.  Other Concessions may be destroyed by the required subsequent dr of a Natural Disaster (7.357).

When a Concession is destroyed, it is placed face-down in the Concession space of the Curia. At the end of each subsequent Forum Phase, the HRAO makes a dr for each destroyed Concession, returning those for which he rolls a "5" or "6" face-up to the Forum. These Concessions, like dead Senators, may be assigned again in a subsequent Senate Phase.

9.62 GOVERNORSHIPS: When a Province is created, place its card in the Forum. Each Province in the Forum has a Governorship which the Senate must fill from among its membership during the next Senate Phase. Elections for all open Governorships are conducted immediately after Prosecutions and before conducting other business. Elections continue until a Governor is selected or there is only one eligible candidate remaining. When a Governor is elected, the Province card is placed on his Senator card, and he must leave Rome immediately without participating in any remaining Senate votes. Elections for multiple Governorships may be held simultaneously, as with Consular elections, so that Governors will be elected (or rejected) in tandem and depart at the same time, but no other proposal may be added to the same vote. A Governor can hold no other office.

9.621 TERM: All Governorships are for a period of three years. Place a Term marker in the Term box of the Governor card and reduce it by one at the end of each Revenue Phase. When the marker moves off the Term Track, the Governor returns to Rome (unless he has previously declared himself in revolt). He may not be re-elected to that or another Governorship without his consent during the turn of his return.

9.622 RECALL: During the term of his Governorship, a Senator is absent from Rome and cannot attend Senate meetings (and vote). A Governor may be recalled in time for the next Senate vote by electing a new Governor, but never in the same year he was elected.

9.623 UNALIGNED GOVERNORS: An unaligned Senator in the Forum may be elected Governor, but this removes him from the Forum and makes him immune to Persuasion Attempts until his return to Rome when he is again placed in the Forum. An unaligned Governor collects taxes for the state but does not engage in personal plundering of his Province.

9.624 VACANT PROVINCES: No income of any kind is generated by a Province without a Governor. Therefore, a new Province never creates Revenue during its first turn of existance because it has no Governor during that Revenue Phase. However, a Field Consul who revolts after collecting a Bequest may immediately assume the priviliges of Governor and thereby collect all Personal and State taxes of that Province (as well as Local taxes in the Advanced Game; 14.2) in addition to retaining those Legions of his command with allegiance to him (11.21; 10.51).

9.625 FRONTIER PROVINCES: Those Provinces with underscored names and black border silhouettes are Frontier Provinces which are susceptible to Barbarian Raids and should be garrisoned (9.641) accordingly.

9.626 PROHIBITIONS: The Senate may not vote to alter the rules. For example, the Senate may not vote funds to run Games on ensuing turns, or force a Senator to make a contribution, or a Censor to prosecute someone. These are matters of individual initiative which cannot be decided by majority vote.

9.63 LAND BILLS: The Senate can improve the Unrest Level by passing Land Bills. Three kinds are available; Type I is a one-year, single payment measure, while Types II and III are permanent measures requiring yearly payments of five and ten Talents but lowering the Unrest Level only during the year of their passage. A Land Bill proposal must name two consenting Senators as sponsor and co-sponsor. If the Land Bill passes, the Unrest Level is lowered and the Popularity of the sponsor and co-sponsor is raised as indicated on the Land Bill Table. Place the appropriate Land Bill marker in the applicable Display box of the State Treasury as a reminder of funds owed by the State during the Revenue Phase. Regardless of the outcome, any Senator who votes against a Land Bill lowers his Popularity as indicated on the Land Bill Table. However, a Senator who vetos a Land Bill with a Tribune is not so penalized. The Senate may propose no more than one Land Bill of each Type each Game Turn. The number of Land Bills which may be in effect at one time is limited by the number of such markers available.

9.631 REPEALS: The Senate may attempt to repeal a Type II or III Land Bill. The Senator who volunteers to sponsor the repeal of a Land Bill must have Popularity ³ the amount he will lose by sponsoring and voting for the repeal. The sponsor lowers his Popularity as indicated on the Land Bill Table and must vote for that repeal. If the repeal passes, the Unrest Level is raised as indicated on the Land Bill Table. Regardless of whether the repeal passes or not, Senators who vote for the repeal lower their Popularity accordingly. Only one Land Bill repeal may be attempted per turn.

9.632 PAYMENT: Payment for Land Bills is made during the Revenue Phase by subtracting the costs of any current Land Bills from the State Treasury. Remove the Type I Land Bill marker after payment is made.

9.633 ASSASSINS: Whenever both the Sponsor and Co-Sponsor of a Land Bill are from the same Faction, they risk assassination. Anytime prior to the end of the vote on the Land Bill, one Senator may attempt an Assassination of either the Sponsor or Co-Sponsor by rolling on the Assassination Table. If caught, that Senator is killed. However, there are no further consequences to his Faction as would normally accrue due to a caught Assassin (9.84). Regardless of the outcome, the vote on the Land Bill continues.

9.64 MILITARY FORCES: The Senate may vote to raise new forces. The maximum number of Legions/Fleets the Republic may raise is 25 of each. The number to be raised must be specified in the original proposal, but the use to which they will be put and the Senator (who must be a Consul, Dictator, or Proconsul [or Governor in command of a Garrison in the Advanced Game]) who will command them need not be. Theater and commander may be the subject of subsequent proposals. Forces raised and not subsequently assigned will become active and remain in Italy (in the Active box). The Senate may not send a force to fight a War unless it is supported by the number of Fleets required by that War card. The State Treasury must immediately pay ten Talents for each new unit raised. The Senate may also vote to reassign or disband loyal units.

9.641 GARRISONS: The Senate may vote to send one or more Legions to a Province to augment its defenses. Once sent, they remain there until recalled. Garrisons are under command of the current Governor. Garrison Maintenance costs are paid by the Senate.

9.642 MINIMUM FORCE: The Senate may not send a Senator to fight a War without his consent unless the combined strength of his force (including his military rating) is ³ that of the War and any applicable Leader. If as a result of losses sustained in a previous turn, a Proconsul's force falls beneath that of the opposing War, he has no such right of refusal and must attack again the following turn unless he has no Legions or insufficient Fleets in which case he is automatically recalled. The Senate may not recall Legions from a Proconsul which will reduce the strength of his force to less that that of his War and any applicable Leaders without his consent.

9.65 MILITARY COMMAND: When a measure to send a force away passes, those units are placed on that War card and their Commander is immediately absent from Rome. The Field Consul (if alive) must be sent to prosecute a War/collect a Bequest before (or simultaneously with) the Rome Consul can be sent. Passage of any measure sending the HRAO to War ends the Senate Phase. Consequently, a player wishing to enact some other proposal during that Senate Phase may play a Tribune card before or during his turn to vote on sending the HRAO away-not as a veto, but as a measure to suspend the vote until after his proposal has been acted upon.

9.66 RECALL: The Senate may vote to recall any Commander who was not victorious during the previous Combat Phase. He returns to Rome immediately and his forces are placed in the Active box unless a replacement Commander is sent to take his place as part of the Recall.

9.67 CONSUL FOR LIFE: Anytime during the Senate Phase following the Consular elections, a player may nominate any Senator in Rome with an Influence ³ 21 "Consul for Life". The nominee may already hold office. For this vote, the nominee may add his Influence to his vote total. If the measure passes, that player wins the game should the Republic survive the current Game Turn (see 12.31). Consul For Life can be proposed only once per turn and cannot be vetoed. Assassination attempts may take place during such a vote, but once elected that Senator cannot be assassinated.

9.68 MINOR MOTIONS: A player may make gratuitous motions to enhance the atmosphere of the game or inform another player of his desire or dislike for a certain course of action. Passage of a minor motions has no impact other than signaling one's intentions to other players. Defeat of a Minor Motions carries no loss of Influence penalty (9.34) to the initiator of that motion. Votes of censure or gratitude, reprimands, personally insulting proposals and suchlike can all be appropriate and used to weigh the chances of passage of more meaningful proposals.

9.69 PROPOSAL ALTERATION: Defeated proposals may not be introduced again in the same Senate Phase without significant change. If, for example, a proposal to assign Fabius eight Legions fails, a proposal to assign Fabius seven Legions or Claudius eight Legions may be put forward. In contrast, Concessions and Consul For Life proposals can only be voted upon once per year.

9.7 TRIBUNES: Tribune cards may be played during the Senate Phase to veto or initiate proposals/nominations. Once used, they are discarded.

9.71 INITIATOR: After the completion of any Prosecutions, a Senator may use a Tribune card to compel the Presiding Magistrate to place a proposal on the floor and bring it to a vote.

9.72 VETO: A Tribune may be used prior to or during the owning Faction's turn to vote to stop any vote from being taken, whether it is an election, Prosecution, or other proposal [EXCEPTIONS: Consul for Life, Prosecutions of Assassins, the proposals of a Dictator, and the last eligible candidate for any office cannot be vetoed]. The Senator playing the Tribune announces "Veto", and the vote is cancelled-even if it already had sufficient affirmative votes declared for passage. The slate of candidates in a vetoed election may not be nominated again in the same year, nor may the accused in a vetoed Prosecution be prosecuted again that year. Any vetoed proposal may not be introduced again in that Senate Phase.

9.8 ASSASSINS: Players may attempt to eliminate opposing Senators by announcing an Assassination attempt. They may add to their Assassination dr by playing one or more Assassin cards prior to the resolution, but possession of an Assassin card is not necessary to attempt an unaided Assassination. No Faction may be the target of more than one attempt per turn, and no Faction may attempt more than one Assassination per turn.

9.81 SENATE IN SESSION: Assassinations may be attempted only while the Senate is in session and only by and against those in attendance. Once the Senate is adjourned, it is no longer possible to attempt an Assassination during that Game Turn. The timing of an Assassination attempt can be critical, so the players may want to agree beforehand on a short phrase (e.g., "die swine") that will mark the exact moment of the attempt. It will thus be easier to decide if a sole Consul was killed before he could finish announcing the appointment of one of his fellow Faction members as Dictator.

9.82 RESOLUTION: The assassin announces the Senator making the attempt, and his target before making the dr. A result of "5", or more kills the target. A result of "3" or "4" fails. A result of "2" or less results in the assassin being caught and implicating his Faction Leader.

9.83 BODYGUARDS: If the target Senator has one or more "Secret Bodyguard" cards, he may announce after the dr how many of those cards he will play to defend against the Assassination attempt. Each Bodyguard so used subtracts "1" from the dr and is discarded after use. The "Open Bodyguard" card must be in play prior to an Assassination attempt to have any effect. If the assassin is not caught, for each Bodyguard card played, the assassin must roll again with all applicable modifiers solely to determine if he is caught. It is therefore possible for the first dr to kill the victim, and a subsequent dr to result in the assassin's capture.

9.84 PUNISHMENT: A caught assassin is killed. In addition, his Faction Leader loses five Influence and is the subject of an immediate special Major Prosecution with an automatic DR on the Popular Appeal Table. However, instead of adding his own Popularity to the DR, the accused Faction Leader must subtract the Popularity of the victim from the DR. In addition to his own death, if the Faction Leader is found guilty, a number of Mortality Chits equal to the victim's Popularity are drawn and any other members of the assassin's Faction currently in Rome whose Mortality Chit is drawn are also implicated and killed. Neither Censor nor Prosecutor are involved in this Prosecution, although the Censor chooses the voting order.

9.9 DICTATOR: Prior to the Censor election the Consuls may choose to appoint a Dictator only if Rome is currently facing three or more Active Wars or one with a strength ³ 20. If no Proconsuls exist from the previous year, this is the only way the Republic can prosecute three wars at once.

9.91 APPOINTMENT: After the Consular elections but before Prosecutions, the Consuls, acting together, may appoint any Senator on whom they can agree and who is not already holding an office, Dictator. If there is only one Consul present because the other has been assassinated, he may act alone to appoint a Dictator. If neither of these situations exist, a Dictator will be elected by the Senate if the HRAO calls for such elections. The chosen Senator takes the Dictator marker and a Prior Consul marker, increases his Influence by seven, and appoints any Senator of his choice not already holding an office his Master of Horse. That Senator takes the Master of Horse marker and increases his Influence by three.

9.92 TERM: The new Dictator becomes Presiding Magistrate. His proposals cannot be vetoed. The term of the Dictator (and his Master of Horse) lasts until the Senate Phase of the next Game Turn, when he must hold the consular elections and surrender his office (unless already in revolt), although he may be immediately appointed/elected again.

9.93 MASTER OF HORSE: Whenever the Dictator commands an army/fleet he is accompanied by his Master of Horse. The Dictator's Military rating for any combat is the sum of his Military rating and that of his Master of Horse. The Master of Horse must accompany the Dictator on any Campaigns and cannot act independently of the Dictator, except to possibly remain loyal if the Dictator revolts. If victorious in a war, the Dictator receives the usual increase in his Influence/Popularity (10.4) and the Master of Horse gets nothing. If the Dictator is defeated, the Master of Horse is killed along with him. The Master of Horse can also be killed by a Mortality Chit draw during a Battle result (10.8). The Master of Horse also adds to the Commander's Military rating in a Naval battle (reflecting the greater efficiency of a unified command), but cannot be used to nullify a Disaster/Standoff result in any battle (10.21/10.31).

NOTE: Each player should readjust his Vote Tally markers as soon as he gains or loses votes due to recruitment of a Knight, Senator gains or losses due to death, persuasion, or absence from Rome.


10.1 WAR: Any Wars to which the Senate has sent an army are now fought. Rome is always the attacker. The Senate need not fight every War. However, any active War card which does not contain at least one Legion (or a Fleet following a naval battle) at the end of the Combat Phase, is moved to the Unprosecuted War section of the Forum where it increases the Unrest Level (see 10.72).

10.11 LAND BATTLES: In land combat the commanding Senator adds his Military rating to the Strength of his army. Army Strength equals the number of Legions in the army; Veteran Legions (see 10.5) count double. The points added by the Commander's Military rating cannot be > the Strength of his army. From this sum he subtracts the Strength Number of the War, which may be modified by the presence of a Matching War or Leader (7.34). To this number is added a TDR, and the resulting sum is located on the Combat Results Table to determine the outcome. Lost Legions are always drawn at random from a cup from among those present whenever there is a possibility of a Veteran, Garrison, or rebel Legion being affected.

10.12 NAVAL BATTLES: Those Wars with three Strength Numbers require two separate battles; one naval and one land combat. In each case the enemy fleets must be defeated before his land forces may be attacked. Naval combat is the same as land combat except that the number of Fleets rather than Legions is counted. Once the enemy Fleets are defeated, his land forces may be attacked in the same Combat Phase provided there are still sufficient Fleets in the force to support the army. If the land combat is not won, the naval battle need not be refought in subsequent turns. The war can be won in subsequent turns by defeating only the enemy Land Strength. Consequently, the Senate may decide to send no Legions to conduct such a War, endeavoring to defeat the enemy naval force in one turn, and his land forces in a subsequent turn. If the Senate attempts to win both the naval and land battles in the same turn, it must send a combined force of Fleets and Legions to defeat the naval force-which could result in Legions taking losses during the naval battle. War cards whose navies have been defeated are marked with a "Fleet Victorious" marker.

10.2 DEFEATS: A result of "Defeat" means the Roman Commander is killed and his force loses the number of Legions and Fleets (if it has them) indicated on the Combat Results Table. Lost units are removed while surviving forces remain on the War card until recalled or reinforced. The Unrest Level is increased by two.

10.21 DISASTERS: Each War/Leader card contains a Disaster number following a "D" in the lower left-hand corner. If this number is rolled (prior to any modification) while resolving combat, the Combat Results Table is ignored and the battle is an automatic Disaster causing loss of half (fractions rounded up) of all participating Roman forces. Fleet and Legion losses are each halved and rounded up separately. The Roman Commander is not necessarily killed, but Mortality Chits equal to the number of Legions and Fleets actually lost in the Disaster must be drawn to check for his death (10.8). The Unrest Level is increased by one.

10.3 STALEMATES: A result of "Stalemate" means the war is undecided. The Roman force loses the number of Legions and Fleets (if it has them) indicated on the Combat Results Table. Surviving forces remain on the War card until the next Senate Phase when they may be recalled or reinforced. The Roman Commander remains in command as Proconsul unless Recalled (9.66) or killed (10.8). There is no effect on the Strength of the enemy [Exception: 14.411].

10.31 STANDOFFS: War/Leader cards containing a number following a "S" in the lower right-hand corner cause a Standoff if that number is rolled (prior to any modification) while resolving combat. The Combat Results Table is ignored. Losses in a Standoff equal one-fourth (fractions rounded up) of all participating Roman forces. Some Wars have two Standoff numbers.

10.4 VICTORY: A land "Victory" lowers the Unrest Level by one and eliminates the War card. A naval victory also lowers the Unrest Level but does not remove the War. The Roman force loses the number of Legions and Fleets (if it has them) indicated on the Combat Results Table and the surviving forces are transferred to the Commander's card. In some cases one or more Provinces will be created and placed in the Forum. The victorious Senator increases both his Popularity and Influence by half (fractions rounded up) of the unmodified (printed) Strength Number of the War (even if the Victory was only a Naval battle and the War still exists). The Banker also increases the State Treasury for Spoils of War by an amount equal to that printed next to the Treasure Chest symbol in the bottom-center of the card (except for Naval battles). Revolts do not yield Spoils of War.

EXAMPLE: Marius is dispatched with nine Legions to deal with a Slave Revolt. Marius' Military rating of "4" is added to the number of his Legions, for a total strength of 13. If Marius had only three Legions, he could only add three from his Military rating. The Strength Number on the Slave Revolt card is "6", which is increased to "11" because the appropriate Leader card, Spartacus, happens to be in play. "13" minus "11" is "2". The player controlling Marius then makes a TDR, rolling a "10", which is added to the base of "2" for a final result of "12". A "12" on the Combat Results Table is a "Stalemate" with a loss of one Legion. Marius loses one Legion (he has no Fleets), and must draw one Mortality Chit to check for his own death. Had he had a Fleet to lose, he would have had to draw two Mortality Chits. The Slave Revolt may be fought again during the next Combat Phase. Had the Combat DR been "11" or "6", the result would have been a Disaster with the loss of five Legions. Had the Combat DR been a "16" or "14", the result would have been a Standoff with the loss of three Legions.

10.5 VETERANS: One Legion from among the survivers[sic] of a Stalemate, Standoff, or Victory is transformed into a Veteran Legion by flipping it over to its Veteran side. It will remain a Veteran Legion until eliminated or disbanded, even if it is placed under the command of another Senator. The corresponding Legion allegiance marker is placed on the Commander's card until he dies or the Legion is eliminated.

10.51 ALLEGIANCE: Veteran Legions count double in combat regardless of which Senator owns their allegiance. If a Senator revolts, the Veteran Legions in his army require no maintenance. If the rebel Senator has Veteran Legions in an opposing army, they desert to his side before combat. Likewise, Veteran Legions of loyal Senators in the army of the rebel Senator desert to the Senate before combat. All veteran Legions, regardless of their location gravitate who owns their allegiance before the resolution of any rebel battle vs the Senate.

10.52 TAKING LOSSES: When elements of both Veteran/Garrison Legions/Provincial Armies are involved, the units eliminated must be drawn at random from among those present. As long as only Legions are involved this can be done by drawing the affected units from a cup at random. However, when Provincial Armies are involved, losses must be determined by dice roll on the Random Loss Chart printed on the back page because there are no Provincial Army pieces to facilitate a draw.

When using the Random Loss chart, two dice (a colored die and a white die) must be rolled for each unit eliminated. The dice are not added in the conventional way but are "read" as a two-digit number; the colored die always being read first. Thus a colored "1" and white "6" are read as "16"-not "7".

The player determines both his total number of units and the minority component of his combined force. For example, if a battle was fought with eight Provincial Armies and three Garrison Legions, the "Total Force" would be "11", the "Minority Forces" would be three. The player would cross-index "11" Total Forces with "3" Minority Forces to determine that a dice roll £ "24" will result in the loss of a Legion from the Minority Force. A dice roll < "24" will cause the loss of a Provincial Army.

Now let's assume the player had to lose two units. His first dice roll was a "31"-eliminating a Provincial Army. His new force composition for the second dice roll will be a Total Force of "10" and a Military Force of "3". If his next Loss Selection dice roll is £ "25" he will lose a Legion. Let's further assume that a Legion was lost but because there is on Veteran Legion among the three Garrisons, a random draw must be made from among those three units (rather than just selecting one) to determine if the Veteran was eliminated.

10.6 NAVAL LOSSES: If Fleet losses cause Roman Fleet Strength War card to fall below the number required for the support of the War, during the next Senate Phase the additional required Fleets must be sent or the entire force will return to Italy (for possible use elsewhere), leaving the war unprosecuted. Fleets are not necessary to withdraw those Legions-only to support them.

10.7 PROCONSUL: A Commander surviving a non-Victorious battle becomes a Proconsul and remains in command of the army and away from Rome through the next Combat Phase unless recalled by the Senate during the next Senate Phase. A Senator may remain Proconsul as long as he retains his command vs the original War he was sent to fight. This is the only circumstance in which a Senator other than the current Consuls or Dictator may command troops [EXCEPTION: Governors in the Advanced Game; 14.4]. The Proconsul is not a Consul. On the next turn, two Consuls are again elected.

10.71 REINFORCEMENTS: The Senate may send additional forces to a Proconsul during the Senate Phase. If he has no Legions left or insufficient Fleets to prosecute the War, he must either be reinforced or recalled.

10.72 UNPROSECUTED WARS: It is not required that an ongoing War be fought again the next Game Turn. The Senate may choose during the next Senate Phase to recall the Army and leave the war unprosecuted. In such a case, the War card is moved to the "unprosecuted War" section of the Forum and the Unrest Level is increased by one at the start of every Population Phase until that War is again prosecuted. Should a Commander be killed, the Senate must send a replacement if they wish to prosecute the war. An army cannot remain in the field without a Commander.

A War which was fought and not won but, due to combat losses sustained, failed to end the Combat Phase with a Roman Legion is an Unprosecuted War since the enemy is unchecked by remaining Roman forces [Exception: If a Naval battle was fought against that War during that turn, a surviving Fleet will suffice to avoid the Unprosecuted War penalty]. It is thus possible that a single War could result in an increase of 4 to the Unrest Level if it caused Drought conditions and the Romans were both defeated by it and did not have a Legion remaining on it at the end of the Combat Phase. Fleet Support is not required after the Combat Phase to avoid Unprosecuted War status.

10.8 COMMANDER DEATH: In any battle result other than a Defeat, a number of Mortality Chits equal to the number of lost units must be drawn to see if the Roman Commander (and/or his Master of Horse) has been killed/captured. Mortality chits drawn in battle have no effect unless that of the Commander (or his Master of Horse, or a Rebel) is drawn. Senators not present at the battle are unharmed. A Commander who loses his entire force is not necessarily harmed as a result of losses taken. A Dictator whose Master of Horse has been captured/killed may appoint another only upon reappointment/re-election as Dictator for the current year.

10.81 BARBARIAN RAIDS: Governors of Provinces overrun by Barbarian Raids (7.352) must draw a number of Mortality chits equal to the colored dr of the Raid DR.

10.82 CAPTURE: A Commander/Master of Horse whose Mortality Chit is drawn as the last (but not the first) of any mortality chits to be drawn in a battle is not killed. Instead, he is captured and subject to ransom. A captive Senator may be returned to Rome upon payment to the Bank by either his Factor or Personal Treasury. The ransom amount is ten Talents or two Talents per Influence of the captive (whichever is more). If the War is defeated before the captive is ransomed he dies. Ransoms paid to Barbarian Raids must be paid before the following Forum Phase to save the captive. A Senator who captures an opposing Senator in a Civil War always kills him. Captives are subject to normal Mortality chit and Foreign Epidemic draws. Another Senator from the same Family cannot replace a captive while he lives.

10.9 MULTIPLE COMMANDERS: The Senate may send more than one Army under different Commanders to fight the same War. However, if they do so, each Army must attack separately-one at a time until the War is defeated or all Armies have attacked. The advantage of sending separate armies to fight a single War is that Disaster/Standoff results do not apply to subsequent battles of the same year vs that War if a previous battle that turn resulted in a Stalemate/Standoff.


11.1 EXCESS INTRIGUE CARDS: Any player with more than five red cards in his hand must discard, play, or trade the excess cards of his choice so that he has no more than five remaining. Any player with a red Statesman/concession card in his hand who wishes to play it for the coming turn must do so at this time. All such declarations start with the player controlling the HRAO and then proceed clockwise.

11.2 DECLARATION OF CIVIL WAR: Any victorious Commander must either lay down his command and return his forces to the Active Box or declare himself in revolt. [In the Advanced Game, a Governor may also declare his revolt now. Otherwise, if his term expires in the upcoming Revenue Phase he must return his Province card to the Forum and return to Rome.] These declarations start with the player controlling the HRAO and then proceed clockwise. Since the Master of Horse does not have an independent command, he can be declared in revolt only in conjunction with the Dictator, or if the Dictator is dead. Only one Faction may be in revolt at a time. Should a Faction which wishes to revolt field a stronger force (inclusive of the respective Commanders' Military ratings) than that of a previously declared rebel, the initial rebel's declaration is ignored, and the player with the stronger force is considered in revolt instead. Once a rebel has been determined, no other player may revolt until that rebel has been defeated.

11.21 COMMANDER ALLEGIANCE: Before announcing his decision, a Commander considering revolt may make a dr for each Legion in his current command to determine if it will follow him. A dr ³ 5 is required for a Legion to follow the rebel Senator during the Early Republic. This dr is lowered to "³ 4" in the Mid Republic, and to "³ 3" in the Late Republic. Before making these die rolls, he may irrevocably spend money from his Personal Treasury (or the Personal Treasury of his Master of Horse with his consent) to buy modifications to those die rolls. For each Talent spent, the rebel Commander may add one to the Loyalty dr of one Legion (maximum modification +1 per Legion). Veteran Legions owing their allegiance to a Commander and Garrisons/Provincial Forces of a Governor follow their Commander automatically.

11.22 SECONDARY REBELS: When a Senator revolts, each of the other Senators in his Faction must immediately declare their loyalty to the State or join him in revolt. Those who remain loyal to the State may continue to function and collect income normally. Those who join the revolt leave Rome and are therefore immune to Persuasion Attempts but lose all Senatorial income (11.4) and share the fate of the rebel should he be defeated. Any money in their Personal Treasuries can be used by the rebel as if it were his own. Veteran Legions owing allegiance to the rebel or secondary rebels will follow him in revolt without maintenance. Secondary rebels with independent commands may not contribute other forces to the rebel at this time and must return their Legions/Fleets (not Provincial forces) to Senate control.

11.3 MAINTENANCE: During the Revenue Phase the rebel Senator must pay out of his Personal or Faction Treasury the maintenance for all Legions under his command (6.13). Veteran Legions owing allegiance to a rebel Senator require no maintenance. Other Veteran Legions owing no allegiance to a rebel Senator must be maintained normally. Those Legions not remaining with the rebels return to the Senate's control. Since it is assumed the rebel has already returned to Italy with his army, Fleets play no role in a Civil War (unless the optional Provincial Forces and Garrisons rules are being used; 14.7).

11.4 INCOME: A Senator in revolt must return his Concessions to the Forum and loses all Knights and Aligned Senator income. His Personal Treasury is frozen; he may not receive money directly from other loyal Senators in his Faction-or may he contribute to his Faction Treasury or any loyal Senator's Personal Treasury-although he may use his Faction Treasury to finance the maintenance of his forces. Loyal Senators of his Faction may still contribute money to their Faction Treasury.

11.5 COMBAT: During the Combat Phase the rebel Senator must fight the army dispatched by the Senate. If the Senate fails to send an army against him, his coup is successful and he wins the game (provided the Republic survives the Turn; 12.32).

11.51 ALLEGIANCE: If the rebel has any active Veteran Legions, they immediately desert to him. If there are Veteran Legions of a loyal Senator in the rebel army, the loyal Senator may instruct his Legions to desert to the Senate's army.

11.52 RESOLUTION: The Senate is the attacker and the rebel the defender. The normal combat procedure is followed (see 10.11). The Strength Number of the defender in this case being the sum of the Military rating of the rebel Senator and the combined Strength of the Legions in his army. Any losses except "ALL" called for by the Combat Results table are applied equally to both armies. A result of "Victory" means the revolt has failed, the rebel Senator is killed, and all surviving rebel Legions are returned to the Active box. The Commander of the Senate's Army increases both his Popularity and Influence by an amount equal to half of the Strength of the Rebel Army he has defeated. "Stalemate" means the Civil War is undecided, and must be continued during the next Combat Phase. The number of Mortality Chits drawn remain the same but can affect either Commander. "Defeat" means the revolt has succeeded and the rebel now rules Rome and wins the game, barring the collapse of the Republic (12.32). All surviving Senate armies are returned to Rome and the rebel Army suffers no losses. A rebel also wins if the State is bankrupt or overturned by a "People Revolt" result on the Population Table (8.2).


12.1 WINNING: The game ends with a win for the player who fulfills any of the following victory conditions:

A.  A loyal Senator achieves a total of 35 Influence and both he and Rome survives the turn (see 12.31). If two or more Senators simultaneously reach 35 Influence, the one exceeding 35 by the most is the winner. If equal, the Faction of the tied Senator with the most combined Influence is the winner. If still tied, the game is a draw.
B.  A rebel Senator while marching on Rome defeats the Senate in battle and both he and Rome survive the turn (see 12.32).
C.  The Senate declares a Senator Consul For Life and both he and Rome survive the turn (see 12.31).
D.  The State is bankrupt or felled by a "People Revolt" result during a Civil War. The declared rebel wins the game unless overcome by four Wars (see 12.32).
E.  The last card is drawn from the Forum deck. If other victory/defeat conditions do not intervene, the Faction with the most combined Influence at the end of the current turn is the winner.

12.2 LOSING: The game ends in defeat for all players if one of the following conditions occurs:

A.  There are four or more active War cards in play at the end of a Combat Phase.
B.  A result of "People Revolt" is obtained during a Population Phase with no Civil War in effect.
C.  The Senate is unable to pay the fine for any Natural Disaster or Evil Omens card with no Civil War in effect.
D.  The State Treasury has insufficient funds to meet all the Republic's obligations during the Revenue Phase with no Civil War in effect.

12.3 SURVIVAL: Regardless of how a player wins, his victory is not secured until the end of the current Game Turn-at which time Rome must still exist. Should Rome be beset by four active wars at the end of any turn, all players lose.

12.31 CONSUL FOR LIFE: If a Senator has "won" by being voted Consul for Life or reaching 35 Influence, all other players who have not already declared a Senator in revolt must obey his orders for the remainder of that turn to determine if Rome survives the turn and thereby assures his win. If a Civil War is already raging, that rebel can still win by method B or D above.

12.32 CIVIL WAR WINNER: If a Rebel defeats the Senate's Army or wins due to a "People Revolt", or State Bankruptcy, or the Senate's failure to Stalemate him when he marches on Rome, he may still lose (along with everyone else) if there are four active Wars (including his Revolt if still ongoing) at the end of the Combat Phase. In this case, he may add to his Army from the defeated Senate Army (as per 11.52) and take over all Roman fleets. He then immediately prosecutes additional Wars one at a time until he fails to achieve a Victory, lacks the necessary Fleets to support his Army against the next War, or reduces the number of active Wars to three or less. Otherwise, he too loses.

12.4 MID-REPUBLIC SCENARIO: Remove all Concessions and black Senator cards from the white deck and add them to the gray deck. Randomly, draw the first red non-Statesman cards from the white deck and add them to the gray deck. Remove the rest of the white deck. Deal four black Senator cards to each player as per 4.4. Each player then draws the first three red cards from the gray deck as per 4.7. The undeveloped Province cards of Sicily, Illyricum, Sardinia-Corsica, Nearer and Further Spain, and Cisalpine Gaul are shuffled and randomly dealt one per player to be assigned to a Senator in his Faction of his choice with any leftover being placed in the Forum. The amount of each Governor's term (one to three years) is up to that player to decide. Six Legions are active in Rome. Otherwise, proceed as in the Early Republic scenario.

12.5 LATE REPUBLIC SCENARIO: Remove all Concessions and black Senator cards from the white and gray decks and add them to the pink deck. Randomly, draw the first red non-Statesman cards from the white/gray decks and add them to the pink deck. Remove the rest of the white and gray decks. Deal five black Senator cards to each player as per 4.4. Each player then draws the first three red cards from the gray deck as per 4.7. The developed Province cards of Sicily, Illyricum, Sardinia-Corsica, Nearer and Further Spain, and Cisalpine Gaul are shuffled and randomly dealt one per player to be assigned to a Senator in his Faction of his choice with any leftover being placed in the Forum. The undeveloped Province cards of Narbonese Gaul, Cilicia-Cyprus, Greece, Africa, and Asia are likewise distributed. [In a six-player game, each player makes a TDR to determine the low roller who will not receive a Governorship.] The amount of each Governor's term (one to three years) is up to that player to decide. All gray Law cards are placed in the Law space and considered in play except for the Servilian and Acilian Laws which negate each other. Eight Legions are active in Rome. Otherwise, proceed as in the Early Republic scenario.

12.6 EXTENDED GAME: Rather than ending play during the turn that the last card is drawn from the Forum Deck, continue into the Mid (or Late) Republic by shuffling the deck from that period and placing it in play. Play proceeds normally after noting the increased Legion Loyalty numbers for Revolts (11.21) and the new Random Events Table column in use for the new period. Such a decision must be made prior to the start of play or by unanimous agreement of all players.

12.7 ALTERNATE HISTORY SCENARIO: Ignore the deck color coding and combine all cards in one shuffled deck, but otherwise proceed with the normal Prepare for Play (4) routine. The Random Events column and Legion Loyalty Numbers will advance at the start of the 8th and 16 turns.: 


The following optional rules will be used for this PBEM game of Republic of Rome. If any additional optional rules are desired, or one or more of the following rules are undesireable, please contact the Game Master. Regardless, all optional rules must be agreed to before the start of the game. Once the game has started, no rules may be changed.


13.1 ELECTION: During the Senate Phase of the first Game Turn a Pontifex Maximus is elected immediately after the two Consuls to look after Rome's religious affairs. The Senator elected places the Pontifex Maximus marker on his card and increases his Influence by five, but gains no further Influence in succeeding years for holding the office. He holds this office for life or until stripped of it by Senate vote, multiple Evil Omens, or Prosecution. he may not resign it voluntarily.

13.2 PRIESTHOODS: During the Senate Phase of each Game Turn, including the first, the Pontifex Maximus must assign or reassign a Priesthood to any one Senator present unless there are none left without one.

13.21 INFLUENCE: The announcement of the new Priesthood may be made at any time during the Senate Phase, and the nominee immediately places a Priesthood marker on his card and increases his Influence by one. A Senator may hold only one Priesthood, but this does not bar him from holding any other office. When a Priesthood is reassigned, the Senator who loses the office must decrease his Influence by one (to a minimum of 0).

13.22 PRIEST BATTLE INFLUENCE: Every Priest receives one extra vote when voting on a proposal that will send forces into battle or change/retain their Commander.

13.3 PONTIFEX MAXIMUS BATTLE INFLUENCE: The Pontifex Maximus doubles his personal votes (including those of his Knights but not his bribes) when voting on any proposal that will send forces to War or change/retain their Commander.

13.4 VETO: The Pontifex Maximus may use a veto once each Senate Phase without use of a Tribune card during or prior to his Faction's turn to vote.

13.5 COLLECTIONS: During the Revenue Phase the Pontifex Maximus receives income from temple collections equal to a dr.

13.6 EVIL OMENS: When Evil Omens occur, the Pontifex Maximus must pay the 20 Talent cost from his Personal Treasury. If he can't pay the 20 Talents, or if a second Evil Omens occurs in the same turn, he is immediately stripped of his office and loses five Influence. If he is unable to pay the full Evil Omens cost, the difference plus a ten Talent fine is levied on his Faction Treasury. If the Faction Treasury has insufficient funds, what money there is in that Treasury is lost, and the Faction Leader may also be the subject of a Major Prosecution during the following Senate Phase in addition to any regular Prosecutions the Censor may wish to conduct. The State must pay any shortfall in the Evil Omens cost (excluding the Faction fine) not paid by the Pontifex Maximus or his Faction.

13.7 RECALL: The Pontifex Maximus may be deprived of his office during any Senate Phase by a two-thirds majority vote of those present. He may not veto that proposal, although another Senator (of his or another Faction) wielding a Tribune may. If voted out of office, he loses five Influence. Regardless of the cause of a Pontifex Maximus' removal, the Priesthoods he has assigned are not affected.

13.8 SUCCESSOR: If the Pontifex Maximus is removed from office, a new one must be elected immediately after the Consular elections during the following Senate Phase.


15.1 DISBANDMENT: During the Revolution Phase, a loyal Commander may disband any of his Veteran Legions loyal to him that are currently under his command. The identities of the disbanded Legions are noted by retaining their Legion Allegiance markers on his card and flipping them to their Disbanded side. The Legions are removed from play. For each Legions disbanded, the Senator increases both his Oratory and Influence by one.

15.2 RECALL: A Senator who has disbanded Veteran Legions may recall those Legions to active status whenever he is Consul by paying from his Personal or Faction Treasury ten Talents per Legion during the Senate Phase. For each Legion he recalls, the Senator flips their Allegiance marker on his card and decreases both his Oratory and Influence ratings by one. Recalled Legions regain their Veteran status and must be maintained by the Senate at the normal rate. Recalled Legions may be assigned by the recalling Senator to either his own army or the army of any other Senator and will fight at double strength. If a disbanded Legion is raised again by the Senate, it can no longer be recalled and no longer has Veteran status. However, the Senate may not recall a Veteran Legion if a non-Veteran Legion remains to be built.

©1990 The Avalon Hill Game Company